Der Ausbruch des Vulkans Eyjafjallajökull auf Island im April sorgte für ein mehrtägiges Flugverbot über Europa und damit auch einen großen. Der Gletschervulkan des Eyjafjallajökull ist auf der ganzen Welt berüchtigt, weil er im Jahr verheerende Auswirkungen auf den Flugverkehr hatte und. Vor zehn Jahren brach der Vulkan Eyjafjallajökull auf Island aus. Die dabei entstandene Aschewolke hatte Auswirkungen auf ganz Europa.
EyjafjallajökullDer Ausbruch des Vulkans Eyjafjallajökull (Zum Anhören bitte klicken! Abspielen [ˈɛɪjaˌfjatl̥aˌjœkʏtl̥]) im Jahr begann am März. Ausbruchsstelle. Eyjafjallajökull ist ein subglazialer Vulkan auf Island. Unter dem Gletscher bildete sich eine Caldera mit mehrern Kratern. Zahlreiche Ausbrüche produzierten die. Der Gletschervulkan des Eyjafjallajökull ist auf der ganzen Welt berüchtigt, weil er im Jahr verheerende Auswirkungen auf den Flugverkehr hatte und.
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Retrieved 10 September T; Roberts, M. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. Bibcode : JGRB.. Iceland Review Online.
Archived from the original on 26 November Retrieved 2 November Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 21 April The Times.
BBC News. Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 9 May Archived from the original on 1 July Archived from the original on 25 April Met Office.
Archived PDF from the original on 31 March Retrieved 19 April Nordic Volcanological Institute. Archived from the original on 14 March Accessed 30 June Archived 5 July Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 24 November Skegness Standard.
Plume from Eyjafjallajökull volcano tan streak moving southeast over the North Atlantic Ocean, April 15, Iceland is outlined at top left; in the plume's path are the Faroe and Shetland islands.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. It erupted again beginning on April 14 and sent wandering ash plumes into the skies that disrupted air traffic for days across northern and central Europe.
On March 20, , Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted for the first time since It began erupting again on April 14 and sent wandering ash plumes into the skies that over the next several days spread and disrupted air traffic across northern and central Europe, the ash clouds posing a….
History at your fingertips. Lava flowed N and spread at an elevation of m. Increased seismicity up to 13 May suggested that new material was intruding from depth, and GPS observations indicated inflation.
Little change in activity was observed during May. Tephra fallout was detected mainly to the NE, with some reaching the coast.
Some tephra dispersed towards the W in the afternoon. By May only a weak plume rose from the W part of the crater; both explosions and lava flows from the crater were absent.
During May there was no apparent eruptive activity, though there was still a considerable amount of steam coming from the crater.
Aerial observers on 25 May figure 14 saw blue smog sulfuric gases and smelled sulfur. Scientists who went to the crater on 25 May saw a small blast of ash, but mostly steam.
Intense steam rose from the craters, with occasional small ashy explosions. Noise of intense boiling and or degassing came from the craters.
Visibility to the bottom was limited due to steam. A strong smell of sulfur came from around the craters. Volcanic tremor was still higher than before the eruption, being rather steady since 22 May, but small pulses, mostly on the lowest frequency, were detected.
Several small and shallow earthquakes under the volcano occurred on a daily basis. No significant GPS deformation was measured. There was still a considerable amount of steam coming from the crater.
Recent precursory intrusions. According to Sturkell and others , "In , and again in , magma intrusion was detected under the southern slopes of Eyjafjallajokull.
These intrusions had their center of uplift approximately 4 km southeast of the summit crater of the volcano and were associated with considerable seismic activity.
After the intrusion event in , crustal deformation and earthquake activity at Eyjafjallajokull have remained low. Aviation impacts.
According to Wall and Flottau , more than , flights were canceled after the ash plume caused aviation authorities in many parts of Europe to close their airspace for several days.
Wall, Flottau, and Mecham noted the difficulty if assessing the risk of flying through volcanic ash plumes which can have varying particulate concenrations and compositions.
The Finnish Air Force FAF Command Operations Division released a report of 21 April discussing jet engine damage from airborne ash from Iceland; at the time of this writing, the report was only available in Finnish.
Routes of several FAF aircraft figure 15 suggest that the flight distances were on the order of a few hundred kilometers.
The Flightglobal website reported the FAF released images showing the effects of volcanic dust ingestion from inside the engines of a jet fighter that flew through the ash cloud on the morning of 15 April.
One aircraft engine showed melted ash clearly visible on an interior surface. Another jet trainer flew through the plume carrying an air sampling pod to collect dust from the atmosphere at various altitudes, however the measurements have yet to be reported.
Einarsson, P. This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features.
Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided. Eyjafjallajökull also known as Eyjafjöll is located west of Katla volcano.
It consists of an elongated ice-covered stratovolcano with a 2. Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the E and W flanks, but are more prominent on the western side.
Although the volcano has erupted during historical time, it has been less active than other volcanoes of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, and relatively few Holocene lava flows are known.
An intrusion beneath the S flank from July-December was accompanied by increased seismic activity. The last historical activity prior to an eruption in produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera during December to January The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.
Gudmundsson M T, Larsen G, Hoskuldsson A, Gylfason A G, Volcanic hazards in Iceland. Jokull , IAVCEI, Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World.
IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior. Jakobsson S P, Petrology of recent basalts of the eastern volcanic zone, Iceland.
Acta Nat Islandica , Johannesson H, The endless lavas at the foot of Eyjafjoll and glaciers of the last glaciation. Jokull , in Icelandic with English summary.
Johannesson H, Jakobsson S P, Saemundsson K, Geological map of Iceland, sheet 6, south Iceland. Oskarsson B V, The Skerin ridge on Eyjafjallajökull, south Iceland: morphology and magma-ice interaction in an ice-confined silicic fissure eruption.
Unpublished Master's thesis , Univ Iceland, p. Pedersen R, Sigmundsson F, Temporal development of the intrusive episode in the Eyjafjallajokull volcano, Iceland, derived from InSAR images.
Bull Volcanol , Steinthorsson S, et al. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript. Remarks: GPS and InSAR data reveal a co-eruptive deformation stage associated with the April?
May summit eruption, indicating gradual deflation of a source distinct from the pre-eruptive inflation source.
Black orthogonal arrows show the satellite flight path and look direction. One colour fringe corresponds to line-of-sight LOS change of Black dots show earthquake epicentres for the corresponding period.
Background is shaded topography. Thick lines below indicate the time span of the interferograms. Red stars and triangles same as in Fig. Hooper, T.
Pedersen, M. Roberts, N. Oskarsson, A. Auriac, J. Decriem, P. Einarsson, H. Geirsson, M. Hensch, B.
Ofeigsson, E. Sturkell, H. Feigl, Intrusion triggering of the Eyjafjallajökull explosive eruption. Nature , , Remarks: GPS and InSAR data reveal a pre-eruptive stage of inflation due to a complicated time-evolving magma intrusion that produced variable and high rates of deformation, in particular after 4 March.
One of the nine interferograms selected for modeling the intrusive episode. Incoherent areas are masked. Amplitude image in background.
The area corresponds to Fig. The time span insets show the relation to the period s of elevated seismic activity Dark gray main seismic period; Light gray secondary seismic period.
For details on dates please refer to Table 2. One full color cycle corresponds to a change in range of 2. Temporal development of the intrusive episode in the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, derived from InSAR images.
Einarsson, F. Sigmundsson, S. Hreinsdottir, and H. Geophysical Research Letters , 30, Remarks: Deformation at Eyjafjallajokull is accompanied by an earthquake swarm in June and can be modeled with a horizontal sill intrusion.
All images cover the area shown in Figure 1B. Glacier outlined in black. Details on image-pairs in Table 1; f Fringe pattern predicted by variable opening sill model.
Dashed line shows outline of uniform sill plane. Green star: optimal Mogi source. Grey circles: best micro-earthquake locations from the swarm; g Variable sill opening.
The three minor areas of opening disconnected from the main sill are artifacts due to atmospheric noise in the data. Sigmundsson,, InSAR based sill model links spatially offset areas of deformation and seismicity for the unrest episode at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland.
Geophysical Research Letters , 31, L The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full dpi map.
Very small-scale maps such as world maps are not included. It is part of a chain of volcanoes stretching across Iceland.
Its nearest active neighbours are Katla , to the northeast, and Eldfell , on Heimaey , to the southwest. The volcano is thought to be related to Katla geologically, in that eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull have generally been followed by eruptions of Katla.
Some damage was caused by a minor eruption in The eruptive phase started on 19 and 20 December by a series of explosive eruptions and continued over the next several days.
The sources describe heavy ash fall in the area around the volcano, especially to the south and west.
From the end of June until the beginning of August , another sequence of explosive eruptions followed.
The sources do not indicate the exact date. In , some men went hiking up on Eyjafjallajökull to inspect the craters.
The ash of Eyjafjallajökull's eruptions is to be found all over the south of Iceland. On 26 February , unusual seismic activity along with rapid expansion of the Earth's crust was registered by the Meteorological Institute of Iceland.
This first eruption, in the form of a fissure vent , did not occur under the glacier and was smaller in scale than had been expected by some geologists.
On 14 April Eyjafjallajökull resumed erupting after a brief pause, this time from the top crater in the centre of the glacier, causing jökulhlaup meltwater floods to rush down the nearby rivers, and requiring people to be evacuated.
This second eruption threw volcanic ash several kilometres up in the atmosphere, which led to air travel disruption in northwest Europe for six days from 15 to 21 April and again, in May , [ clarification needed ] including the closure of airspace over many parts of Europe.
Some geophysicists in Iceland believe that the Eyjafjallajökull eruption may trigger an eruption of Katla, which would cause major flooding due to melting of glacial ice and send up massive plumes of ash.
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Buat buku Unduh versi PDF Versi cetak. Wikimedia Commons. Eyjafjallajökull Islandia. Global Volcanism Program , Smithsonian Institution.
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